Understanding musculoskeletal disorders

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) are injuries or disorders of muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, cartilage, or spinal discs.

MSD are considered work-related when the work activities and work conditions significantly contribute to their development or exacerbation but are not the sole determinant of causation (World Health Organization, 1985).


  • Repetitive or awkward hand movements
  • “Static loading” or holding a posture
  • Poor muscle endurance
  • Direct mechanical pressure on tissues
  • Basic workstation design
  • Low temperature of the environment

shoulder in pain

Early warning signs and symptoms

  • Discomfort and fatigue
  • Swelling or any change in the limb’s temperature
  • “Catching” or “snapping” with movement
  • Loss of grip strength
  • Stiffness
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Visual strain

The injury accumulates slowly leading to difficulty in day-to day activities such as shaking hands, opening doors, holding newspapers, using a comb, or even holding a teacup.


Techniques that help to treat MSD


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